Makalah English Education
In Consideration to Literacy-based Curriculum
The approach of language teaching described in this paper is one focused on relationships – linguistic, cognitive, and social relationships between readers, writers, texts, and culture; relationships between form and meaning; relationships between reading and writing; relationships between spoken and written communication. The approach acknowledges the importance of textual analysis, but emphasizes the need to widen the scope of inquiry beyond the literary canon, to include a range of written and spoken texts that broadly represent the particular signifying practices of society.
Maritime Communication through Dialogic Meaning Construction in Role Play
Henny Wahyu Wardani
Politeknik Ilmu Pelayaran Semarang, Indonesia
This paper attempts to describe features of maritime communication and suggest a way of teaching this specific kind of communication to learners using a strategy belonging to meaning-focused output strand that incorporates the productive skills of writing and speaking intended to raise learners’ awareness of form. Maritime communication has a set of constraints typical of language use that falls within closed register unlike those found in daily communication. Maritime communication is transactional in nature involving intership and intraship communication. Intership communication involves a vessel’s OOW and VTS when the ship is about to berth, cast off, load or discharge. Learners at Politeknik Ilmu Pelayaran need to be well equipped with how to successfully deal with such a communication encounter later in their career as seafarers. One way of achieving this is by having them actively involve in a dialogic meaning construction with their peers in a collaborative manner. Meaning-focused output strand provides them with activities that enable them to benefit from the feedback and correction they get during the join construction of a maritime discourse from their fellow learners.
Keywords: maritime communication, dialogic meaning construction,
CONTROLLED WRITING AS A CLASS EXERCISE FOR BEGINNER
Satya Wacana School of Foreign Languages (STiBA Satya Wacana)
Writing is part of skills that the students must learn in class. This skill seems to be the most difficult for some of the students who learn English as second or foreign language. At the basic level, writing is an act of committing words or ideas to some medium. On the other hand, writing is a work of inventing ideas, thinking about how to express the ideas and organizing them into sentences that will be clear to readers. Writing itself is not a skill that cannot be learned. By the help of the teacher and a lot of exercises, the students will be able to improve their ability in writing. Some exercises that can help the students are controlled writing. The examples of controlled writing are imitating, rewrite a story using the clues given, combining sentences, completing sentences, and arrange sentences into chronological order. This paper tries to show the need of controlled writing as an exercise to improve students’ ability especially beginner in writing for communicating their ideas.
Key words: controlled writing, beginner, writing class.
Three Major Learning Theories Underlying Foreign Language Teaching Methods
Teaching methodology of language practice began to find its contemporary trends in the early twentieth century. In these decades some methods were introduced replacing and revitalizing the previous ones. Today, along with the development of curriculum and responding the learners’ needs, some innovative methods which can be classified as learners-oriented, greatly appear in the practice of language teaching and learning. Each method of foreign language teaching has a set of assumptions which is derived from its underlying theory. There are two major theories underlying foreign language teaching methods i.e. the theory of language and the theory of learning. However, the primary aims of this paper is to describe the three major types of learning theory and to find out the teaching methods whose foundations are derived from the theories.
The learning theory is covered in three major types ; behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. There are some methods derived from behaviorism ; Audiolingual and Situational Language Teaching, cognitism ; Cognitive Code learning and contructivism ; community language learning (CLL), Suggestopedia and Total Physical Response (TPR).
Key Words : Theory of Learning, Foreign Language Teaching Methods
CLASSROOM DISCUSSION IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TO IMPROVE THE ABILITY OF LISTENING
By Dra. Sri Endang Kusmaryati, M.Pd.
(The Lecturer of English Education Department, FKIP UMK Kudus)
Language is an important tool of communication. The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. Listening is one of the important parts in teaching English because it includes one of four basic language skills. the writer found that most of students of senior high school still get some difficulties in studying listening. It may be caused many factors including the limited students’ vocabularies and also their understanding of grammar. Besides the method used by the teacher in teaching English may also one of the reasons. Concerning to this condition, the writer thinks it would be better to use some learning strategies that invites the students to be active in teaching learning process. In addition, the most appropriate approach to solve the problem is by using Classroom Discussion. In this approach, the students get a big opportunity to express their own ideas and it can arouse their motivation to involve in a discussion in the classroom. By using Classroom Discussion it is hoped the students can develop their conceptual understanding, communication skills and thinking processes, and also involvement and engagement. And at last the students’ ability of listening may be improved.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN MANAGING ENGLISH LEARNING OUTCOME THROUGH “MASTERY LEARNING”
Naturally human is created in variabilities. Each learners have their own limit competence. Teachers should understand their different competences that need not only classical treatment but also different treatment in learning by giving materials which suits the culture and characteristic of Indonesian people but is still able to achieve global competition. If teachers want the learning process to succed to bring them to the optimum mastery achievement, efforts to facilitate the learners with different kinds of ways both remedial or enrichment program should be given. This paper is rephrased from Indonesian School Based Curriculum ( Pembelajaran Tuntas, KTSP 2008) that gives alternative learning strategy, namely Mastery Learning. It is leraning pattern that uses individual learning mastery, and lessen the learners’ failure in learning. Mastery learning strategy follows individual approach which means although the learning is for a group of students, but it serves the individual differences, so that by applying mastery learning makes possible development of individual learner optimally. The basic thinking of mastery learning with individual approach is admitting the different indivial from the learners.
Key words : Mastery learning, Senior High School Students.
Engaging EFL Learners in Meaningful Communication
English Departmen, Faculty of Letters and Arts
Semarang State University
This paper attempts to suggest a way to engage EFL learners in meaningful communication by encouraging them to communicate their personally-felt opinions about a given issue presented in a speaking course. It has long been known that textbooks produced by major English- speaking countries mostly present EFL materials that depict western lifestyle, habit and custom which are very much different from their real lives (Bariboon, 2007). The textbooks typically present materials in the form of model dialogues followed by exercises in the form of (mini) role-plays in which EFL learners are assumed to have various projected identities with situations completely unfamiliar to them. Learners are people with their own lives, aspirations, needs, worries, dreams and identities. This means, as van Lier (2007) suggests that they must have something to say that is true to the self to each other and to the teacher in class that goes beyond what are offered by a textbook that lies open on the same page at the same time on every desk. Thus the traditional sequence of the language lesson usually referred to as “PPP” (Present- Practice- Produce) is motivated by a textbook progression that may result in a sort of inert knowledge that cannot be displayed productively in real life situations. To overcome this problem, EFL teachers can employ meaning-focused output activities in their classroom to facilitate learner-oriented discursive construction and meaningful communication.
Keywords: EFL materials, projected identities, meaning-focused output activities, discursive construction.
VARIOUS FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR YOUNG LEARNERS
H. Sumartono, S.Pd.
This paper aims at the importance of foreign language teaching strategies in optimizing young learners’ foreign language proficiency. It is quite interested to be investigated due to the young learners have specific and unique characteristics which are supposed to be different from adult learners. The difference demands a language for young learner teacher to select sequential language teaching techniques and strategies which are formulated and organized in such a way adjusted to the learners’ condition and needs to yield the intended result. This paper provides general characteristics of young learners compared with adult language learners, the advantages of teaching language in early childhood and describes how to be an ideal young learner teacher by identifying several required potentialities. It also stresses on the importance of selecting and determining accurate and suitable language teaching strategies and chronological class activities in all language skills. In the last section, the paper exhibits the teacher’s role in handling the young learner English class.
Key words: teaching and strategies, young learners, foreign language proficiency
The Use of Cartoon in the Learning of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for Developing Literacy Skills
English Language and Literature Department
Jenderal Soedirman University
The idea of practicing literacy skills, e.g. in composition practice or vocabulary building, using cartoon is not really new. Based on my experience, using cartoon can be fun and enjoyable for students. Cartoon has been popular with learners of EFL. The pictures with sufficiently prepares for the activity, involves students in expressing their ideas in written forms. The purpose of this paper is to share ways of utilizing cartoon for teaching composition and vocabulary enrichment in EFL classes.
Key words: EFL, literacy skills, composition, vocabulary building, cartoon
STRATEGY FOR TEACHING A “NOUN” TO THE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH EDUCATION OF COLLEGE
By: Dra. Rini Fatmawati, M. Pd.
Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta
Strategies for teaching a ”noun” to the students of English education of college are, of course, aimed at making them reach the general objective containing the basic competence through the achievement of the specific objectives containing some indicators. In order that they reach it, a certain strategy must be used. The strategies for teaching it are the procedures used in teaching it and the procedures themselves can be identified in the method themselves. Some methods for teaching it are based on a certain approach for teaching it and deductive approach can be used. The teaching procedures the lecturer uses in the teaching of it are the ones the lecturer has to do in a certain order. The procedures based on that approach are asking the students to comprehend the knowledge about “noun” by asking them to read it, asking them to do some exercises by making a discussion, asking one of the students who can do them correctly to give an explanation to the other students, giving some feedback, and giving some reinforcement. What is read by the students are the notion of noun, types of it, suffixes added to it, and the function of it; the exercises they have to do are the ones which are relevant with the cognitive objective, viz. application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; what they have to explain is about the reason of the use of a noun; the feedback given can be verbal or facial signals; and the reinforcement given can be positive or negative one.
Key words: general objective (basic competence), specific objectives (indicators), material, approach, methods, techniques